Friday, August 21, 2009

water bicycle - wings jet foil

http://www.3sat.de/imperia/md/images/nano/2009/08_august/21_31/21_wasserfahrrad1_n.jpg


Der Luft- und Raumfahrtechniker Stefan Riederer fährt mit seinem Fahrrad nicht nur über das Wasser - physikalisch gesehen fliegt das umgebaute Mountainbike im Wasser. Ein Propeller sorgt für den Schub.

http://www.daserste.de/cmspix/wwiewissen/30072009112790_535.jpg
Nur noch ein paar Handgriffe und dann weiß Stefan Riederer, ob sein Traum in Erfüllung geht. Er steht an einem Steg eines oberbayerischen Sees in der Nähe von Rosenheim. Ein Jahr Arbeit hat er in seine Idee gesteckt. Eine Idee, die von allen seinen Ingenieurskollegen immer nur belächelt wurde. Stefan Riederer will mit einem Fahrrad übers Wasser fahren.
Ein Propeller soll für den nötigen Vorwärts-Schub sorgen, angetrieben über die Pedale und nur durch Muskelkraft. Damit das Wasserfahrrad nicht zum U-Boot wird, montiert Stefan Riederer kleine Tragflächen. Sie sorgen für den nötigen Auftrieb – hoffentlich!

Geplatzter Traum und neue Herausforderung

Eigentlich, meint Stefan Riederer, fährt sein Fahrrad nicht; und es schwimmt auch nicht. Wenn alles gut geht, fliegt er mit seinem Rad durch das Wasser.
Schon als kleiner Junge verbringt Stefan Riederer Stunden damit, Vögel am Himmel zu beobachten. Er ist fasziniert von der Idee, nur durch die eigene Kraft abzuheben und durch die Lüfte zu segeln. Ein Traum, der ihn nicht mehr loslässt.
Heute ist Stefan Riederer studierter Luft- und Raumfahrttechniker und promovierter Aerodynamiker. Und heute weiß er, dass der Traum vom Fliegen nur mit Muskelkraft für ihn leider ein Traum bleiben wird.
"Prinzipiell geht das natürlich schon. Aber der Aufwand wäre enorm. Nur die teuersten Materialien dürften zum Einsatz kommen und für die Montage eines entsprechenden Fluggerätes bräuchte ich eine ziemlich große Halle, weil die Spannweite wahrscheinlich etwa 30 Meter betragen müsste. Alles zusammen betrachtet muss ich eben sagen: Das schaffe ich nicht alleine."

Statt in die Luft ins Wasser

Propeller für das Wasserfahrrad (Bild: BR)lupeBildunterschrift: Antrieb für das Fahrrad ]
Doch ganz lässt ihn sein Traum dennoch nicht los. Und er verfällt auf eine andere Lösung: Er verlagert seine Idee in ein zäheres Medium: ins Wasser!
Stefan Riederer versucht sich zuerst an einer Machbarkeitsstudie. Gewicht, Stabilität, Schub des Gefährts und Auftrieb im Wasser sind die Parameter, die zusammen über Erfolg oder Misserfolg entscheiden.
Als Grundkonzept kam nur das Fahrradprinzip in Frage. Über Pedale könnte Riederer als gut trainierter Sportler maximale Kraft für den Antrieb einsetzen.
Nach zwei Monaten Rechenarbeit steht fest: Es gibt den Hauch einer Chance, dass ein Wasserfahrrad funktioniert. Aber die Herausforderung ist groß!
"Ich weiß, ich kann auf dem Fahrrad etwa 400 Watt strampeln", sagt Riederer. "Das ist nur halb so viel wie Eric Zabel auf der Zielgeraden bringt, aber es ist jetzt auch nicht wenig. Mehr geht aber nicht! Das ist der limitierende Faktor! Das heißt alles andere drum herum, muss so konstruiert und so beschaffen sein, dass mein Wasserfahrrad funktioniert, dass ich damit wirklich durchs Wasser fliegen kann. Es ist eine Sache der Optimierung. Ich muss alles andere so umsetzen, dass es mit meiner Leistung funktioniert!"

Das "Wasser"-Rad neu erfinden

Eingespannter Fahrradrahmen (Bild: BR)lupeBildunterschrift: Umbauarbeiten am Rahmen ]
Das Grundgerüst für das Wasserfahrrad ist schnell gefunden: der Rahmen eines Mountainbikes. Leicht, aber extrem stabil ist er. So kommt die Kraft von Riederer auch direkt auf die Pedale. Aber ein Rahmen macht noch kein Wasserfahrrad. Andere Komponenten müssen mit ihm verschweißt werden. Und zwar mit höchster Präzision. Nur die kleinste Abweichung von den Berechnungen und das Fahrrad versinkt vielleicht.
Die Tragfläche stellt die nächste Herausforderung dar. Zwei weitere Monate braucht Stefan Riederer, um sie zu berechnen und zu fertigen. Auch sie muss leicht, aber absolut widerstandsfähig sein. Auf sie warten im Fall des Falles die höchsten Belastungen. Ein Heißdrahtschneider ist das perfekte Werkzeug. Er schält aus einem Schaumstoffblock die exakt berechnete Form. Doch ein Flügel aus Schaumstoff würde beim Eintauchen ins Wasser sofort zerbrechen. Schließlich sitzt Stefan Riederer mit seinen gut 70 Kilogramm direkt über ihm. Der Schaumstoff gibt nur die Form vor. Den eigentlichen Flügel fertigt der Ingenieur aus Carbon - Kohlefaser! "Dieses Material ist der absolute Wahnsinn. Wenn man es nass macht, kann es jeder Form angepasst werden und nach dem Trocknen im Ofen ist es zehnmal stabiler als Stahl, aber nur ein Drittel so schwer. Mit dem Material werden Flugzeuge gebaut, das Space Schuttle und natürlich Formel I Bolliden. Und ich kann es für mein Wasserfahrrad verwenden. Ohne Carbon könnte ich meine Idee nicht umsetzen. Und es sieht einfach irre aus. Für mich ist es das schönste Material der Welt!"

Die größte Herausforderung aber ist der Antrieb. Stefan Riederer weiß: Jeder Millimeter unter Wasser bremst. Irgendwann würde die bloße Muskelkraft einfach nicht mehr ausreichen. Trotz eines komplizierten mechanischen Antriebs muss das Gehäuse für denselben absolut schlank und stromlinienförmig sein. Nach langem Tüfteln findet Riederer eine Lösung. Zumindest eine, die laut Berechnungen funktionieren müsste. "Das Dumme ist, ich habe wirklich nur einen Versuch! Wenn alle Berechnungen sagen, dass es geht, und ich gehe trotzdem unter, dann weiß ich nicht, woran es liegt. Ich habe keine Chance irgendwo anzusetzen und etwas zu verbessern. Dieses Experiment ist also ziemlich 'digital': entweder Hopp oder Topp!"

Stefan Riederer "Fährt" über den See (Bild: BR)

Bildunterschrift: Geglückter Versuch ]
Aber Stefan Riederer schafft es. Nach ein paar Versuchen. Denn das Aufsteigen und Losfahren mit dem Wasserfahrrad muss erst geübt werden.
Es ist unglaublich, ein surrealer Anblick. Sofort versammeln sich zahlreiche Schaulustige am Ufer des oberbayerischen Sees. Stefan Riederer fährt mit seinem Fahrrad übers Wasser, so sieht es zumindest aus. Im physikalischen Sinne fliegt seine Konstruktion im Wasser.
Stefan Riederer hat sich also seinen Traum erfüllt. Und dabei ist er schneller als jedes Ruder- oder Segelboot.



Winzige Kohlefaser-Tragflächen leisten den Auftrieb. "Ich kann auf dem Fahrrad kurzfristig 400 Watt leisten", hat Riederer errechnet. "Das ist vermutlich weniger als die Hälfte, die ein Eric Zabel schaffte, aber es muss reichen."

Tüftler holen aus dem alten Fahrrad Neues heraus
Dank des Berliner Tüftlers Thomas Kretschmer wird das Liegerad zu einem schlanken und bequemen Sportgerät ohne umständliche Mechanik. Er hat inzwischen eine passende Nabenschaltung mit elf Gängen konstruiert und patentieren lassen. Rohre aus Kohlefasern, mit Epoxydharz verklebt, lassen leichte und stabile Rahmen zu. Mehrere Faserlagen werden - kreuzweise gewickelt - zu federleichten Bauelementen. Christoph Beck hat alle möglichen zusammenfaltbaren Fahrräder konstruiert.

Es gilt als albernes Unterfangen, "das Fahrrad neu zu erfinden". Mit einem Wirkungsgrad von 96 bis 98 Prozent ist es eine unschlagbar effektive Kraftmaschine; der Mensch, der es antreibt, leistet nur etwa ein Viertel.

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the ENERGY TOILET - biogas human excretia

http://www.k4rd.org/images/pit.jpg



one could produce energy from a public toilet!!!

http://www.3sat.de/imperia/md/images/nano/2009/08_august/21_31/21_toilette4_n_481x270.jpg

http://www.3sat.de/nano/news/136914/index.html

Sulabh Flush Compost Toilet is a pour-flush water-seal twin-pit toilet that
is technically appropriate, socio-culturally acceptable and economically
affordable. It is an indigenous technology and the toilet can easily be
constructed by local labourers and materials. It provides all the health benefits
by safe disposal of human excreta on-site. It requires only 1.5 to 2 litres of
water for flushing and thus conserves water. It does not need the services of
scavengers to clean the pits. There are two pits; size & capacity of pits vary
according to the number of users. The capacity of pit is kept generally for 3
years. Both the pits are alternately used. When one pit is full, excreta is
diverted to the second pit. In about two years rest period, the sludge gets
digested and is almost dry and pathogen free, thus, safe for handling
as manure. Digested sludge is odourless good manure and soil
conditioner that can be dug out easily by the beneficiary and used for
agricultural purposes.

http://images.google.com/images?q=Sulabh+Flush+Compost+Toilet



FULL TEXT


Delhi Sustainable Development Summit 2004
Organised By
TERI, New Delhi
On
4th to 7th February, 2004
At
India Habitat Centre, Lodhi Road
New Delhi
Sulabh Sanitation Technologies to achieve Millennium
Development Goals on Sanitation
Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak
Ph.D., D.Litt.
Founder
Sulabh Sanitation Movement
Sulabh International Social Service Organisation
Sulabh Gram, Mahavir Enclave
Palam-Dabri Marg, New Delhi-110 045, India
Tel. : 011-23381686, 23073753, 23073672, Fax : 011-23381511
Email: sulabh1@nde.vsnl.net.in
2
Sulabh Sanitation Technologies to achieve Millennium
Development Goals on Sanitation
Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak*
Due to burgeoning population, rapid urbanization, industrialization and
uncontrolled use of natural resources, there has been gradual imbalance of
ecosystem in recent years causing severe health hazards and environmental
pollution, resulting in poor economic growth in developing countries. Continued
urban migration, congregation of urban poor in slums without safe water
supply and sanitation facilities and increasing resource constraints have all led
to rapid deterioration in quality of life and community health.
There are 2.4 billion people in the world who either have no organized
system of sanitation or have access only to a noxious and unhygienic facility.
The health implications for this state of affairs are appalling. Globally, 2.2
millions people die every year from diarrhoeal disease (including cholera)
associated with contaminated water supply, sanitation and hygiene. The
majority are children under the age of five in developing countries. Improved
hygiene and sanitation help reduce sickness from diarrhoea considerably.
Intestinal worms infection about 10% of the population of developing countries,
can be controlled through better sanitation, hygiene and water supply.
Sanitation facilities help check transmission of many faecal – oral diseases by
preventing human excreta contamination of water and soil. Epidemiological
evidence suggests that sanitation is at least as effective in preventing disease as
improved water supply.
In India, out of the total population of 1027 million, according to 2001
census, about 736 million people lack basic sanitation facilities resulting in
high mortality and morbidity and poor economic growth. One of the challenging
problems of the country is to abolish the inhuman practice of manual
scavenging. There are still more than 500,000 scavengers engaged in the
demeaning practice of cleaning and carrying others’ human excreta from over 7
million bucket privies.
3
Low sanitation coverage in India is primarily due to insufficient
motivation/awareness of people and lack of affordable sanitation technology.
Most of these people are from lower socio-economic groups and are not aware of
the health and environmental benefits of sanitation. It is still not seen as a high
priority, resulting in absence of people’s participation. The lack of choice of
toilet design, area-specific technologies, inadequate supporting delivery systems
and absence of trained masons, skilled workers and technical manpower are
the factors for low coverage. Additionally, by tradition, Indian society and
culture value personal hygiene, but give little importance to a clean and healthy
community environment. Sanitation is regarded as a matter of individual
initiative and not as a collective obligation of the community. In this sociocultural
background, environmental sanitation has not been given required
priority.

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_38j2TM2ezF8/Rm2wFCE20fI/AAAAAAAAARk/W3SR-H8hlXI/s320/pic2.gif

The Millennium Development Goal aims at halving, by the year 2015, the
proportion of people who do not have access to basic sanitation, which would
include action at all levels, to develop and implement efficient household
sanitation systems, improve sanitation in public institutions, especially schools,
promote affordable and socially and culturally acceptable technologies and
practices, promote safe hygiene practices and integrate sanitation into water
resource management strategies. One of the important questions is which half
part of the population should be focused upon to provide sanitation first?
Sanitation in rural areas is an urgent priority; so also uncontrolled population
growth in urban and peri-urban areas resulting in increase in slums where
health & hygienic conditions are even worse than in the rural areas. Should we
begin with the need for creation of awareness or should we without further
delay, straightway start acting and implementing programmes creating
sanitation facilities. A realistic programme has to commence by creating
awareness initially, followed by formulation of plans, strategy and
implementation. The concept of creation of awareness does appear to be rather
amorphous and intangible. But, the acronym IEC, though hackneyed, is
significant. Years ago I asked myself when I founded Sulabh in 1970, how I
come into the picture in all this? We began with the beginning. Sulabh when
was a child, first practiced IEC on itself and subsequently used it for spreading
the Sulabh concept. I should acknowledge the lesson I learnt from the WHO
publication (Excreta Disposal for Rural Areas and Small Communities” by
Edmund A. Wagner and J.N. Lanoix) wherein it is said “Suffice it to say here
that out of the heterogeneous mass of latrine designs produced all over the
world, the sanitary pit privy emerges as the most practical and universally
applicable type”. This was the seed which germinated; this was the genesis.
The point is why did I need technology of twin pit pour flush Sulabh
system. I remember the days when I was in the Gandhi Centenary Committee.
Gandhi’s ideas and idealism influenced and inspired me to try to remove the
stigma of untouchability attached to the class of people known as scavengers
who manually clean the excreta of others. They clean but the world continues
to treat them as unclean. They touch the excreta of others and in turn become
untouchable themselves. The task is demeaning. Unfortunately, attitude of
others towards them is more undignified than the indignity attached to the
profession. I decided to wage the battle. I started as a one-man army. As they
say “Karvan Chalta Gaya, Log Shamil Hote Gaye” and the one man army by now
has grown into nearly 50,000 soldiers of sanitation.
The strategy that I adopted was to devise technology which would
eliminate the need of excreta being cleaned by scavengers. This was the twin pit
pour flush system.
Sulabh is the pioneering organization in India, involved in development
and implementation of socially and culturally acceptable sustainable
technologies in the fields of low cost on-site sanitation, public toilets, recycling
and reuse of biogas from public toilets, wastewater treatment through
duckweed and composting of biodegradable waste matter. The Sulabh Flush
Compost Toilets developed and modified by Sulabh is nationally and
internationally recognized design for safe and hygienic disposal of human
wastes. The new design developed by Sulabh for efficient production of biogas
from community toilet linked biogas plants, is approved by the Government of
India for its implementation in different states. Wastewater treatment through
duckweed and its economic return from pisciculture developed by this
organization is perhaps only technology having direct economic return out of
5
wastewater treatment. The technology is gaining momentum in different states
of India. Sulabh Thermophilic Aerobic Composting (STAC) a technology that
biodegrades any organic matter within ten days is a landmark achievement of
Sulabh in the field of solid waste management. The technology does not require
manual handling of solid wastes during composting period. Details of the above
technologies are described in the following pages.
Sanitation Technologies
In developed countries, the standard solution for the sanitary disposal of
human waste is water borne sewerage. Due to severe financial constraints and
exorbitant cost, sewerage is not the answer to solve the problem of human
waste management in India. Sewerage was first introduced in the world in
London in 1850, followed by New York in 1860. Calcutta in India was the next
city in the world to have this privilege in 1870, yet only 232 towns/cities out of
4,700 have sewerage system that too with partial coverage.

http://www.k4rd.org/images/pit.jpg

Septic tank is beyond the reach of the common man as its cost is
unaffordable to common people. It requires large volume of water for flushing. It
has other problems like periodic cleaning and disposal of sludge. Effluent
disposal is a potential source of foul smell, mosquito breeding and health
hazards, if not properly disposed of. After the tank is filled, it contains fresh and
degraded excreta mixed with water. Since mechanical device is rarely available
to empty the tank, it has to be cleaned manually by scavengers, which is an
unsocial and unhygienic process. The Government of India has banned the
system of scavenging, but unless the technology of septic tank is completely
banned, it would be practically difficult to ban scavenging. Even after the
septic tank is emptied mechanically, its sludge has to be kept in ditches for at
least two years to make it free from pathogens, which is a very cumbersome
process. Generally, such undigested human wastes with water are discharged
into open drain or on soil surface causing nuisance, health hazards and
environmental pollution.
Sulabh Flush Compost Toilet
6
Sulabh Flush Compost Toilet is a pour-flush water-seal twin-pit toilet that
is technically appropriate, socio-culturally acceptable and economically
affordable. It is an indigenous technology and the toilet can easily be
constructed by local labourers and materials. It provides all the health benefits
by safe disposal of human excreta on-site. It requires only 1.5 to 2 litres of
water for flushing and thus conserves water. It does not need the services of
scavengers to clean the pits. There are two pits; size & capacity of pits vary
according to the number of users. The capacity of pit is kept generally for 3
years. Both the pits are alternately used. When one pit is full, excreta is
diverted to the second pit. In about two years rest period, the sludge gets
digested and is almost dry and pathogen free, thus, safe for handling
as manure. Digested sludge is odourless good manure and soil
conditioner that can be dug out easily by the beneficiary and used for
agricultural purposes.
Again talking about goals and targets I would like to mention that Sulabh
has constructed more then a million Sulabh toilets in individual households.
Lest I may sound boastful, let me remind that use of Sulabh toilets by over 10
million people on a daily basis juxtaposed against 700 million indulging in open
defecation may seem insignificant. But the technology devised has had its own
role to play especially considering that it was implementation of a new
technology. It was a pioneering effort to eradicate the evils of open defecation
and scavenging. The figures given above give an idea of the effort made on the
one hand and the colossal magnitude of the problem on the other and
establishes that only one organization cannot solve all the sanitation problems
and there is need for others also to come in. I am glad to say that others have
also entered the field. I only wish they display the same dedication as was
expected of Sulabh and which it has fulfilled and continues to do so.
Though legislation prohibits scavenging, it required technology back up
and its implementation to create conditions which eliminate the need of
employing the scavengers. A large number of towns have been made scavenging
free and more than fifty thousand scavengers have been liberated. They have
found other avenues and employment like cleaning streets etc. Efforts of Sulabh
did not end here. To prevent children of the scavengers reverting to the
7
profession of scavenging Sulabh has started, vocational training institutes,
where training is imparted in different trades like in the field of computers,
motor mechanic, tailoring and beautician courses etc. Besides a school is run
for children of the scavengers on the basis of mixed grouping concept with ratio
of 60:40 between children of the scavengers and those of other classes.
The sum and substance of what has been said above is that Sulabh has
developed a technology which is practical and cost effective as opposed to water
borne sewerage and septic tank based ones. The Sulabh technology has also led
to social transformation serving a social purpose.
Sulabh Public Toilet Complexes

http://www.sulabhinternational.org/ms/images/image45.jpg
Provision of public toilet complexes at public places and in slums
on pay and use basis is an important landmark of Sulabh in the field
of community health & hygiene and environmental sanitation.
Although in 1873, the then Bengal Government enacted a law to set
up toilet facilities in Calcutta, due to one reason or another such
facilities could not be provided / maintained. During the 100 years
between 1873 and 1973 public toilets could not be made practicable.
The concept of implementation of public toilets and its maintenance
on pay and use basis, originated by Sulabh in 1974, got a roaring
success throughout the country. It was felt that along with the
community toilets, if facilities for bathing and washing clothes could
also be provided and above all they could be kept clean, people would
have no hesitation in using them and pay for the use.
Sulabh has constructed so far nearly 6000 such toilet complexes
in different parts of the country, where maintenance is provided
round the clock. These complexes are located at public places like
bus stands, hospitals, markets etc. and slums. For the construction,
operation and maintenance of these complexes, the organization plays
the role of catalyst and a partner between the official agencies and the
users of the toilet complexes. The system of operation and
maintenance of community toilets evolved by the organisation has
8
proved a boon for the local bodies in their endeavour to keep the
towns clean and improve the environment.
This is a unique example of partnership of local authorities, nongovernmental
organization and the community. The local government
pay only once for the construction of toilets. Sulabh constructs the
system and takes its maintenance guarantee for at least 30 years from
the amount received as users’ charge, without any burden on local
government.
Community Toilets Linked with Biogas Plants
Recycling and reuse of human excreta for biogas generation is an
important way to get rid of health hazards from human excreta. Sulabh is the
pioneering organization in the field of biogas generation from public toilet
complexes. After a series of experiments, the organization developed a more
efficient design of biogas pl ant that has been approved by the Ministry of Nonconventional
Energy Sources, Govt. of India for its implementation through
state nodal agencies. Human excreta contains a full spectrum of pathogens,
which cause over 50 infections when transmitted from one diseased person to
healthy ones. During biogas generation, due to anaerobic condition inside
digester most of the pathogens are eliminated from the digested effluent making
it suitable for using it as manure. Thus, biogas technology from human wastes
has multiple benefits - sanitation, bioenergy and manure.
Based on ‘Sulabh Model’ design, 118 nos. biogas plants of 35 to 60 cum
capacity have been constructed by Sulabh in different states of the country so
far. The Sulabh Model of Biogas Plant does not require manual handling of
human excreta and there is complete recycling and resource recovery from the
wastes. Digester is made underground into which excreta from public toilets
flows under gravity. Inside digester, biogas is produced due to anaerobic
fermentation by the help of methanogenic bacteria. The biogas, thus produced,
is collected inside digester itself due to liquid displacement chamber. One cft of
biogas is produced from the human excreta per person per day. Human excreta
based biogas contains 65-66% methane, 32-34% carbon dioxide and rest
hydrogen sulphide and other gases in traces. Biogas is utilized for cooking,
9
lighting through mantle lamps, electricity generation and body warming during
winter etc. Cooking is the most efficient use of biogas. Biogas burners are
available in a wide range of capacity ranging from 8 cft to 100-cft biogas
consumption per hour. Biogas mantle lamp consumes 4-5 cft per hour having
illumination capacity equivalent to 40 W electric bulb at 220 volt. Motive power
can be generated by using biogas in dual fuel internal combustion (IC) engine.
At optimum condition only 20% diesel is required, rest (80%) is substituted by
biogas. Biogas consumption by engine is 15 cft /BHP/hour. A public
convenience visited by about 2000 persons per day would produce
approximately 60 cum of biogas which can run a 10 KVA genset for 8 hours a
day, producing 65 units of power.
Sulabh Effluent Treatment (SET) Technology
Produced biogas from human excreta is being used for different
purposes e.g. cooking, lighting, electricity generation and body
warming. Besides, effluent of biogas plant can be used as fertilizer, as
it contains good percentage of nitrogen, potassium and phosphate.
But simultaneously its aesthetically bad colour, odour and presence
of pathogens, limit its use for agricultural/horticultural purposes.
Since Sulabh is maintaining over 6000 public toilet complexes
spread all over country, out of which 118 are linked with biogas
plants, it was an important task for the organization to make effluent
free from odour, colour and pathogens, to use it safely for agricultural
purposes. After a series of experiments, the organization has
developed a new and convenient technology by which effluent of
human excreta based biogas plant turns into a colourless, odourless
and pathogen free manure. The technology is based on filtration of
effluent through activated charcoal followed by ultraviolet rays. The
filtration unit makes it colourless, odourless and free from organic
particles and UV eliminates bacteria. It reduces BOD, COD of the
wastewater drastically. Since such wastewater is from human wastes,
its BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) is around 200 mg/l that comes
down to <10 mg/l after treatment- safe for aquaculture, agriculture
10
purposes or discharge into river or any water body. It can be used for
floor cleaning of public toilets in drought prone areas.
Advantages of Sulabh Biogas plant with SET system
§ No manual handing of human excreta is required.
§ Aesthetically and socially acceptable.
§ Technically appropriate and financially affordable.
§ Operational & Maintenance cost very low.
§ Biogas is used for different purposes.
§ Treated effluent is safe for reuse or discharge into any water
body.
§ In drought prone areas treated effluent can be used for
cleaning of floor of public toilets.
§ Direct economic return by using effluent in agriculture and
aquaculture.
Duckweed based waste water treatment
One of the major problems with wastewater treatment methods is
that none of the available technologies has direct economic return.
The available technologies are unaffordable due to high capital and
maintenance costs. Due to non-economic return, local authorities are
generally not interested in taking up treatment of wastewater causing
severe health hazards and environmental pollution. In our country
out of about 5000 towns / cities only 232 have sewerage system that
too partial.
Sulabh has demonstrated projects on duckweed based cost
effective wastewater treatment in rural as well as urban areas with
direct economic return from pisciculture. Although duckweed is found
in ponds and ditches, due to near complete absence of know-how of
any such technology in the country, potential of duckweed for the
wastewater treatment, its n utrient value and economic benefits have
not been exploited.
11
Duckweed - a small free floating and fast growth aquatic plant
has tremendous ability to reduce BOD, COD, suspended solids and
bacterial and other pathogens from wastewater. It is a complete fe ed
for fish and due to high content of proteins and vitamins A & C; it is a
highly nutritious feed for poultry and animals. The yield of fish
increases two to three times when fed with duckweed than with
conventional feeds in ponds. Reduction of BOD, COD of effluents
varies from 80-90% at the retention time of 7-8 days. The first project
funded by the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India was
completed in collaboration with the Central Pollution Control Board,
New Delhi. The CPCB has made a guideline on the use of duckweed
for the wastewater.
Sulabh Thermophilic Aerobic Composting (STAC)
Sulabh International Institute of Technical Research & Training
has developed a new technology - Sulabh Thermophilic Aerobic
Composter (STAC) that requires only 8 to 10 days to make compost
from any biodegradable waste without any manual handling during
composting. It is based on thermophilic aerobic method. The
technology does not require recurring expenditure. The plant is G.I.
sheet made having double wall filled with glass wool, partitioned with
perforated sheet into three chambers. After biodegradation, liquid is
collected in bottom chamber that can be easily taken out and used for
agricultural/horticultural purposes. Manure that contains 30-35%
moisture can be directly used for agriculture/landfill purposes or it
can be dried, granulated and stored till further use. The practical
utilities of this technology are: (i) organic solid waste can be
efficiently converted into manure and soil conditioner having
direct/indirect economic return, (ii) it controls diseases transmitted
from wastes, as at high temperature pathogens are eliminated from
the waste, (iii) due to reduction in volume, carriage cost of wastes to
disposal site as well as area needed for landfills will be drastically
reduced, and (iv) spread of weeds from wastes will also be controlled.
12
The technology is more suited for rural areas as its by-products
(compost) can be readily used for agricultural purposes,.
The appearance of Sulabh, a pioneering voluntary organization,
principally dedicated to eradication of scavenging and liberation of
scavengers through low cost technologies, has proved to be a
significant milestone on the road to human waste management. It is
evident that the government or non-governmental organization alone
cannot fulfil the gigantic task of sanitation in India. The problem can
be solved effectively where both work in cohesion. Our experience as
NGO has been that the Government alone cannot face the challenge of
carrying out community centered social development programmes.
NGOs are used to adopt innovative approaches and provide services to
support sustainability and effective use. NGOs with trained social
workers work as activators and good communicators. The Millennium
Development Goals can be achieved when government bodies in close
co-operation with NGOs/CBOs/community work together for
dissemination and implementation of cost effective technologies for
sanitation.
v
13

R&D CENTRE FOR ORGANIC FARMING AT MAVAL

Pune : The organic farming movement, which is still at a nascent stage in the country, will get a big boost with Asia’s first research and development centre for organic farming coming up at Maval, about 50 km from here.

Work on the centre is already underway, but it will take at least another year to start functioning.

At present there are only about three such institutes in the world in the US, in South Africa and in the UK.

The centre, to be funded by the International Institute of Sustainable Agriculture (IISA), will be run jointly by city based Maharashtra Organic Farming Federation (MOFF), V.B. Foundation, an NGO, and the Organic Farming Association of India (OFAI).

The 55-acre research centre will also have a training institute, records office, library, lobby office as well as a certification office for participatory guarantee scheme.

“The training institute will also offer certificate, diploma and post-graduate courses in organic farming,” said MOFF vice-chairman Dilip Baradkar. “The courses will focus on farmers who want to shift to organic farming courses for upgrading knowledge of organic farmers, courses for upgrading knowledge of organic farmers, trainers courses for trainers, awareness sessions for consumer groups, and training for school children for introduction of organic kitchen garden.”

SWATI SHINDE, 6-05-2008

When a Portable toilet is a precious gift!

What qualifies as the perfect marriage gift? Jewellery, dress, diamonds or a luxurious car? None of the above, feels Savitri Mane, who has decided to give her niece the most ‘precious’ gift of all – a portable toilet.
Katraj-resident Savitri’s niece Raksha is marrying a youth from Bhor this week. When Raksha’s parents noticed that the groom’s house does not have a toilet, they decided to gift the bride one.
“It has become a trend nowadays to buy portable toilets as gifts. The demand is on the rise this reason. Parents, whose daughters are marrying rural youths, have added a portable toilet to their list of gifts offered to the groom,” said Ramdas Mane of Mane Industries in Bhosari. His firm has received orders for more than 1,000 toilets in the past few days. “Already, we have provided 2,500 toilets in 200 villages in Pune, Satara and Kolhapur,” he said. Many other small firms are in the portable toilet business and share Mane’s experience.
“Girls these days refuse to accept a groom whose house does not have a toilet. Even low-income families in city have toilets. But even some rich families in villages feel that a toilet is unnecessary,” said Ramesh Sonawane, who has gifted his daughter one. These toilets cost between Rs 7,000 and Rs 12,000, depending on the quality.
These toilets come with ready-made RCC walls and a sceptic tank which could be carried easily. While the tank is ideally placed by digging a hole, it takes hardly two hours to fix the walls.
“Basically, girls from urban areas are not willing to marry into rural families. A girl from the police lines in Pune was married in Sangli and had to suffer a lot because there was no toilet facility,” said Pratima Joshi of Shelter Associates. She added that city girls make sure that these basic amenities are available in their in-laws’ houses before getting married.
“When my uncle asked about the marriage gift, I suggested a portable toilet. As a new bride I would not be in a position to ask my in-laws to construct a toilet at their place. So while leaving Pune, I will carry my toilet,” said Ekta Tare, who is getting married to a youth from Khatav In Satara.
The government is also taking initiative in providing low-cost toilets. In Satara district, the zilla parishad has developed a model of low-cost toilet. “The response has been good. Even people from Pune have approached us. Many villages have decided that girls from their village will marry only to those boys whose house has toilet facility,” said Irshad Bagwan, information and communication officer in Satara.

Courtesy: Times of India Pune, 3-5-08


Prabhakar Wawge brings solar energy to every home

Energy conservation is the ‘in’ thing today, but using alternative methods are not easy. Keeping this in mind , a city-based researcher has acquired a patent for his innovation which promises to bring solar energy to every home.
Conventional solar heating systems use large space and have to be placed on open premises only. But Prabhakar Wawge, a renewable energy engineer and consultant, has invented a solar collector which can be used in multi-storied buildings without using the terrace area. That means any flat owner can install and utilize this system in whatever place is available.
Describing the system Wawge states, “This system reduces the cost by Rs. 300-3500 in comparison with a normal solar system. It can also be used as a wall integrated solar collector and does not require any pumping mechanism for circulation.” Wawge has recently received the patent from the Government of India, for which he has applied in September 2005.
According to Wawge,”Even though people have funds to install solar systems, bad aesthetics and lack of space do not allow them to do so. However, this system, which is basically a flat plate collector system, can be integrated in the wall. It has been devised keeping in view seasonal changes and the path of the sun for the whole year.
Incidently, Wawge approached MEDA so they could exploit his invention, however authorities asked him to approach private companies which Wawge refused.

Courtesy: Pune Mirror, May 2, 2008

SOLAR ENERGY FOR ENDING WATER WOES OF RURAL FOLKS

If the mission of a Pune-based private firm bears fruit, three villages may get over the water shortage and will soon see filtered drinking water flowing through their taps.
Aar-em Electronics Pvt.Ltd, makers of Champion UPS, is all set to go ahead with the goodwill gesture once the technology, which uses solar energy to pump water from wells gets ready.
“The firm will be using membrane filter developed by National Chemical Laboratory and already got in touch with manufacturers of the membrane filter. Water is cleaned of viruses and bacteria while passing through the membrane, which was developed by NCL’s polymer division. The membrane allows only tiniest of molecules to pass through it. NCL’s membrane filter, which received a US patent last year, works on gravity.
The success story of Mohri, a village situated about 100km from Pune, where the firm put an end to the 60-year-old electricity blackout by installing equipment that works on solar energy gives them the backing.
Once the firm succeeds in providing light and water to three villages (using solar energy), they plan to get in touch with the Maharashtra Government in order to replicate their Pune model across the State.

Courtesy: INDIAN EXPRESS, apri,16th 2008

This charka can light up bulb and radio!

Now, you can spin the yarn, and through that, listen to the radio and do some reading as well. This is thanks to rural development minister G Chinna Reddy on Friday launching e-charka, an electric improvisation over what was made famous by Mahatma Gandhi.

Attached with a specially-designed portable generator, the e-charka can help a person earn his livelihood by spinning yarn or handloom. In addition, thanks to the attached generator, the person gets seven hours of electricity which will enable him to listen to a transistor and afford one light bulb.

Speaking to the media after the launch, the minister said the e-charka has been developed by the Khadi and Village Industries Commission in association with a Bangalore-based company and that it would enable the spinner living in the hinterland to spin yarn and earn anything between Rs 15 and Rs 60 depending on the size of the charka.

There are four variants, from two spindle to eight spindle e-charkas.

The base model of the two spindle charka costs Rs 5000.

The KVIC would buy the yarn from the spinners, the minister said. The government would also examine the possibility of giving subsidy for the financially weaker sections to buy the charka.

This could provide additional source of income particularly for the beedi rollers which mostly consists of women mainly from the Telangana region. With the danger symbols on beedi packets becoming mandatory, the beedi rollers fear that they may soon be out of job and this charka could come handy for them.

Since the two and four spindle charkas are easy to operate, even women and children can spin it and contribute to the family income, he added.

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Hyderabad/This_charka_can_light_up_bulb_radio/articleshow/2962714.cms


Mohri Village lights up with solar energy

Till recently, the villagers of Mohri 100 kms from Pune in Velhe taluka used kerosene lamps. But today, the village is the proud advocate of solar energy. Mohri is a sleepy hamlet with 25 houses belonging to shepherds, woodcutters and small farmers.

Ranjit Mohite, a Pune-based UPS manufacturer, on 18th March installed two KED (light-emiting diode) lamps in the homes, along with solar streetlamps for the entire village. Today the village is 100 per cent powered. Having used polluting kerosene lamps all this while, the villagers are now getting used to the new power, self-financed by Mohite at a budget of Rs. 4 lakhs. Each home now has two solar lamps, support by a solar panel and a battery, which are used for two hours in the day and for five hours every night.

LED bulbs last 10 times more a compared to conventional compact fluroscents (CFLs) and 50 to 100 times longer than typical incandescent lamp or bulbs in everyday situations.

Courtesy: Maharashtra Herald Pune


Mahajane villagers tap biodiesel alternative

When it comes to using ecofriendly energy, the residents of Mahajane village in Raigad district have shown the way. They use karanj oil to operate tractors and machines and save on fossil fuels.
Pune-based Applied Environmental Research Foundation (AERF) has begun a project in which oil is extracted form karanj (Pongamia pinnata) seeds to help meet the energy requirements, provide employment and increase the income of the 800-odd villagers in Mahajane.

It is one of 17 projects in the world and one of the three projects in India funded by the World Bank to generate biofuel to improve rural energy services and reduce proverty.

Speaking to TOI, deputy director and project-in-charge, Jayant Sarnaik, said that Mahajane had been chosen since it has the highest density of karanj trees. The seeds yield 25 to 30 per cent oil.

AERF has set up an oil-extracting machine at a cost of around Rs 1.5 lakh in a two-room house in the village. The machine has the capacity to crush 20 kg of seeds per hour. Two village youths, Manoj Avachatkar and Devidas Patil, have been trained to operate the machine.

Sarnaik said that the seeds are bought at the price of Rs 6 per kilo while the oil is to be sold at Rs 30 per litre and oilcake at Rs 9 per kg to villagers and Rs 10 per kg to outsiders. “The oil needs to be filtered and heated to 60 or 65 degrees Celsius to make it thinner, so that it can be used as fuel in vehicles,” he explained.

Elaborating on the uses of the oil, Sarnaik said that it can be used to run tractors, powertillers, flour mills and vehicles, The Mahajane villagers have tested and reported that a 5 HP engine operated on one litre of biodiesel functioned for 15 minutes longer than one operated on diesel. He said that within a year, the use of biodiesel is expected to go up in the village once they start getting a larger quantity of seeds. Resort owners in Nagaon Akshi, located nearby, have shown a willingness to use the oil in gensets if it is provided at a lower price than diesel. “The oil could be also used to run a genset for the village to generate power during load-shedding”, Sarnaik stated.

Courtesy: Times of India, June 28, 2007

Sunday, February 18, 2007
LIVING ARCHITECTURE FOR URBAN SPACES

Architecture is not just the index of civilisation, but also a celebration of life, says noted architect and planner Christopher Charles Benninger, based in Pune

Benninger's focus has been on "the Middle Path in Buddhism", the balance between humans and nature and between the built fabric and its natural terrain. Using INTELLIGENT URBANISM, Benninger tries to find a balance between humans and nature in his designs

In 1968, Benninger, an alumnus of the Harvard Graduate School of Design and Urban Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, first came to India on a Fulbright scholarship. Three years later, this disciple of Spain's Jose Luis Sert and a former member of the Delos think-tank on modern social and urban planning returned to India as a Ford Foundation consultant to set up the School of Urban Planning at Ahmedabad. But this time around, he was here for good.

For Benninger, moving to India has spelt liberation from various "forms of entrapment". Being in America and Europe, he notes, would only have dissolved him in a mob goaded in "one, pre-defined right direction" by media, money, fame and a smothering sense of self-importance. "America is great because you can pretend to be what you aren't, but India is great because you can find yourself and be what you are."

Self-imposed exile
For well over 35 years since then, this American has lived and worked in a "self-imposed exile" in India, conceiving award-winning designs for institutions, residential schools, hotels, corporate offices and large-scale housing projects, preparing plans for the governments of Bhutan, Nepal, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India, and advising the World Bank, UNO and Asian Development Bank on development projects in Asia and Africa.

In Pune, among some of his works are the Mahindra World College and the Centre for Planning and Architecture, both of which have used traditional Marathi wada styles of achictecture

As an architect, much like a cinematographer, Benninger programmes human experiences of moving through the spaces he designs. Informing this preconceived "kinetic architecture" are real people who transform these spaces into "places", imbuing them with life and meaning.

What fascinates Benninger about Indian architecture is its vacillating context defined by the happenings within, a far cry from "the dull, fixed images of packaged consumer items" that pass off as architecture in the West. He makes no secret of his dismay, and surprise, at the Indian awe of Western "stunts parading as architecture" that he equates with children screaming for attention. To qualify as true architecture, a structure, he believes, must span the continuum of time. "What are more interesting are the precursors to the events that give shape to the form, and the impact of the forms on future events."

To Benninger, the very chaos, uncertainties and contradictions that fetch Indian cities generous disparagement are indeed the "raw material of creativity and free thought". "While everyone has heard of Newark or New Jersey where there is no soul, no life and just empty shells and lost memories, Indian cities represent the dynamism and energy that thrive out on the periphery of the global system." This is perhaps why he is pained to see India redefine itself based on "consumption and the false sense of personal power it engenders".


Compiled from HARSH KABRA , Online edition of India's National Newspaper
Sunday, Jul 16, 2006

posted by deepamariam @ 10:26 PM 0 comments
Tuesday, January 02, 2007
DR PATHAK’S BIOGAS PLANTS GIVE DIGNITY TO UNTOUCHABLES

Bindeshwar Pathak, the founder of Sulabh International, has been conferred this year’s Energy Globe Award. Dr. Pathak is the leader of a national crusade for restoration of human rights and dignity to millions of scavengers traditionally known as untouchables by providing safe and hygienic human waste disposal system. This is a multipronged effort to bringing scavengers into the mainstream of national life and has taken the shape of a movement for social justice. He is now an internationally acclaim medical expert on sanitation and has developed and implemented on pan-Indian scale a low cost and appropriate toilet technolgy recommended by UN bodies for about three billion people across the globe.

The widespread phenomenon of open defecation remains grim even after 50 years of independence. Especially women have to suffer a lot due to non-availability of toilets. Even today 110 million Indian houses have no toilets and 10 million Indian houses have bucket toilets causing filth and disease. The situation is so appalling that about half million children die every year due to dehydration caused by open defecation.


Dr. Pathak is probably the first person in the world who has promoted on a massive scale, the idea of obtaining biogas from human excreta collected in large-sized public toilets used by 2000n to 5000 persons a day. It has been amply demonstrated by him that in the absence of sewerage facility, the best option for human waste disposal to be used in conjunction with large public toilets, is the biogas plant. It has the added advantage of being a source of renewable energy which is lacking in the septic tank system. Another first to Dr. Pathak’s credit is the granulated organic manure obtained from the dried sludge of biogas plants.


After Gandhi, Dr Pathak is the man who has championed sanitation and upliftment of the untouchables. For the last three decades Pathak has been working relentlessly to keep the ecosystem clean and bring the marginalized sections of the society in the mainstream. He has given a new dimension to the Gandhian movement and broad-based his principled fight against all kinds of discrimination. He knew that slogans alone will not help and hence developed a technology which has become a credible alternative to toilets.


Courtesy Maharashtra Herald, December 20, 2006

posted by deepamariam @ 10:53 PM 0 comments
CHEAP ETHANOL STOVE FOR VILLAGES DESIGNED BY SATARA ENGINEER

Anil K Rajvanshi, a Phaltan-based IITian, who has devoted his life to addressing the energy needs of rural India, has developed an innovative stove and a lamp that works on locally made “low concentration ethanol”. This fuel is much cheaper than kerosene and has distinct advantages over biogas which requires bulky equipment for gas production.

Rajvanshi, who heads the Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute (NARI) at Phaltan in Satara, received the 2001 Jamnalal Bajaj foundation for the use of science and technology in rural development. His institute has pioneered a number of initiatives in agriculture, renweable energy, animal husbandry and sustainable development.

The large scale production of this fuel in rural areas, through simple distillation of any sugary biomass as sugarcane or sweet sorghum, would not only provide a very safe and efficient cooking fuel but also go a long way to reducing the hardship of women who use firewood, biomass or kerosene for cooking. Some women who cook on kerosene stove said this stove is much better than the kerosene stove because it is completely silent and no smell comes out after extinguishing it. Some of them also felt that it is much safer than kerosene stove since it requires much les pumping.

While the stove could be mass-produced for Rs. 800-1000, low concentration ethanol could be produced around Rs 16 per litre which is highly affordable as compared to Rs.25 liter for kerorene or Rs.310 per cyclinder for LPG.


There is a need to change government policies so that low grade ethanol can be made available as a cooking and lighting fuel for household purposes. It will not only improve the quality of life for the rural population but also help in creating wealth in these areas.

Courtesy Times of India Dec 2006

posted by deepamariam @ 10:44 PM 1 comments
Sunday, April 09, 2006
PUNE DRAFT LAW TO EXPLOIT RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES

Pune based World Institute of Sustainable Energy WISE has prepared a draft law to exploit renewable energy resources. Among some of the provisions of this law are:
Mandatory solar water heating by 2012
Solar lighting in govt. buildings by 2010
Captive diesel plants to be converted to bio-fuel
Trade of renewable energy certificates between states
Renewable transport fuel obligations for oil companies
Policy of automotive bio-fuel expected in six months
Energy efficiency programme for railroad and air traffic

The draft law does not put any financial burden on state governments and no subsidies have been proposed. It recommended the setting up a separate fund for encouraging renewable energy sources. Inorder to facilitate effecting enforcement of the law, several existing laws such as the Boiler Act, Motor Vehicles Act and the Environment Protection Acts would need to be ammended. This draft law if passed will be a roadmap for a new independence in energy resources.

posted by deepamariam @ 12:19 AM 0 comments
DR KARVE'S SMOKELESS CHULHAS HELP BACKYARD VILLAGES

Dr. Priyadarshini Karve , a local college teacher has been awarded the prestigious World Technology Network WTN Award 2005 for her innovate smokeless chulhas which she designed with the local NGO ARTI Pune. Charcoal is made by burning agricultural waste in an oxygenless condition and then crushing the charred remains into a fine poweer. The fine powder is then compressed into small cubes, which are fed for the specially designed chulhas designed for optimum combustion. This way the harmful affects of indoor pollution which claims lives of more than five lakh children and women in India is prevented. Dr. Karve has also been involved in designing a special cement kiln which burns wood efficiently thus not producing smoke. ARTI has sold more than 50,000 of such chulhas in the villages and in the last two years, it has trained nearly 140 articsans from villages to mass produce these smokeless kilns.

Courtesy Indian Express Pune

posted by deepamariam @ 12:16 AM 0 comments
MEDA PUNE'S RS.5 CRORE BIO-DIESEL PARK AT TATHWADE

The Maharashtra Energy Development Agency MEDA is planning to set up a biodiesel park – the first of its kind in Asia at Tathwade Dairy. The 100 acre park will comprise a research laboratory as well as a plantation area for different species of oil producting plants like jatropa, karanja and castor. The park will be used for research, publicity and training of farmers on bio-diesel. MEDA is also working out plans to counter the energy crisis plaguing the State. Starting 2006, 240 villages are to be electrified through solar energy. Currently 600 MW wind energy is being produced through windmills and an addition 600 MW wind energy is to be added by March 2006 in Brahmangaon in Dhule district.

Courtesy Indian Express

posted by deepamariam @ 12:13 AM 0 comments
PUNE COMPANY TO SUPPLY BIODIESEL THROUGH MOBILE VANS

Shirke Biohealtare, a private Pune company, has started supplying 5000 litres of biodiesel through mobile vans in different areas of the city. The company has entered into an agreement under contract farming arrangements, with the Bank of Maharashtra and farmers for promoting cultivation of Jatropha the seeds of which are used for producing the biodiesel. Biodesel is available at the same price as diesel but provides 14 percent more mileage than diesel. The refinery capacity of the company is being increased to 50,000 litres per day for which it needs 1 lakh hectare Jatropha cultivation. Loans are provided to farmers at competitive rates for Jatropha cultivation. The company also wants to promote the cultivation of other plants that can yield biodiesel.

Courtesy Maharashtra Herald Pune

posted by deepamariam @ 12:11 AM 0 comments
ARTI PUNE BIOGAS ALTERNATIVE TO LPG

Biogas has see many changes with voluntary organizations and environmental groups developing indigenous units to make the technology urban in outlook and use. Pune’s Appropriate Rural Technology Initiative ARTI has developed a compact unit that is made of plastic and is as big as a refrigerator. It comes in two variants of 500 litres and 750 litres. The initial cost of the apparatus is between Rs.6000 and Rs.7000. Dr. Anand Karve, chief functionary of ARTI says that family kitchen waste of even rotten fruits, potato peels or spoilt milt, produces far more methane. A family spends Rs.10 a day on LPG and this can be brought down by bio-gas. Space may be the only major hitch when it comes to erecting a bio-gas plant for a housing society of 200 families.

Few other NGOs in Pune like Jnana Probhodini and BAIf are also working on the concept.

Courtesy Maharashtra Herald Pune

www.gandhianalternatives.blogspot.com/


www.3sat.de/nano/news/136914/index.html

Der Inder Bindeshwar Pathak hat für ein billiges und umweltverträgliches Toilettensystem für Slums den Stockholmer Wasserpreis 2009 erhalten, der anlässlich der Weltwasserwoche verliehen wurde.
Pathak erklärte, er werde das Geld für die Bildung von Kindern der Dalit-Gemeinschaft verwenden, die in Indien Latrinen leeren. "In meiner Heimat Indien stehen die Unberührbaren auf der gesellschaftlichen Leiter ganz unten", sagt der Preisträger." Ich hab sie gesehen wie sie immer wieder gezwungen wurden, die Latrinen auszukratzen. Die einzige Sache dem zu entgehen ist eine einfache Toilette mit Spülung. So kann man den Menschen die Würde wieder zurückgeben." Pathak ist Gründer der Sulabh-Sanitärbewegung.

Pathak erhalte die Auszeichnung, weil er "ein verblüffendes Beispiel dafür geliefert hat, wie ein Einzelner das Wohlbefinden von Millionen Menschen erhöhen kann", heiß es in der Begründung der Jury.

Mehr als zehn Millionen können das System nutzen
© Weltwasserwoche Lupe
Bindeshwar Pathak freut sich über den Stockholmer Wasserpreis 2009
Das simple Toilettensystem des 1943 geborenen Inders nutzen mehr als zehn Millionen arme Menschen der extrem dicht besiedelten Stadtslums gegen geringe Gebühren in 7000 Stationen an öffentlichen Plätzen. Es ermöglicht neben hygienischem Schutz vor oft lebensbedrohlichen Krankheiten auch die Nutzung von Exkrementen als Biogas zum Heizen, Kochen und der Erzeugung von Elektrizität. Als einen der wichtigsten Erfolge des Systems hoben die Juroren vom Stockholmer Wasserinstitut heraus, dass Pathak und seine Mitstreiter Betroffene von ihrer bisherigen Nutzung von Eimern als Toiletten abbringen. Deren Inhalt werden in der Regel in offene Latrinen oder einfach irgendwo in der Umgebung entleert.

UN-Organisationen für Entwicklungsländer empfehlen die Verwendung von Pathaks System zum weltweiten Einsatz für insgesamt 2,6 Milliarden Menschen. 2008 wurde der Brite John Anthony Allan für sein Konzept des "virtuellen Wassers" ausgezeichnet. Damit lässt sich unter anderem der Wasserverbrauch für die Produktion eines Hamburgers berechnen.
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Tuesday, August 18, 2009

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13. Juni 2009

Elektrofahrräder: E-Bike oder Pedelec

Elektrofahrräder
große Bildversion anzeigen

Fahrräder mit Hilfsmotor hatten lange Zeit das Image von motorisierten Krankenfahrstühlen, die vor allem gehbehinderten Menschen die Fortbewegung ermöglichen sollten. Das hat sich geändert. Nicht nur die sogenannte Silver-Generation will in der zweiten Lebenshälfte mobil bleiben, auch jüngere Menschen wissen es inzwischen zu schätzen, sich beim Fahrradfahren von einem Elektromotor unterstützen zu lassen.

Elektrofahrräder werden in zwei unterschiedliche Klassen aufgeteilt. Elektro-Bikes und Pedelecs (englisch für "Pedal Electric Cycle"). E-Bikes sind Fahrzeuge, die verkehrsrechtlich als "Kleinkraftrad mit geringer Leistung“ bezeichnet werden. Entscheidend ist, dass die Beschleunigung über einen Drehgriff oder Gashebel am Lenker erfolgt. Anders verhält es sich bei den sogenannten Pedelecs. Hier wird der Elektromotor nur dazu geschaltet, wenn der Fahrer auch in die Pedale tritt. Fällt der Motor aus, wird das Radfahren schnell zur Qual, denn Elektrofahrräder wiegen zwischen 25 und 30 Kilogramm. Das gilt es zu bedenken, wenn die Räder in einen Fahrradkeller, eine Wohnung oder auf einen Autogepäckträger gehoben werden müssen.

ExtraEnergy e.V. - das unabhängige Testzentrum

Hannes Neupert, Gründer und Vorsitzender des Vereins ExtraEnergy e.V., beschäftigt sich seit mehr als 20 Jahren mit Elektrofahrrädern und hat sich auf dem Markt der leichten Elektrofahrzeuge mit seinem Test- und Prüfzentrum auch international einen Namen gemacht. Hersteller aus aller Welt lassen im thüringischen Tanna ihre Fahrzeuge testen. Der Verein legt großen Wert auf seine Unabhängigkeit und tritt auch als Testkäufer auf. Die Prüfergebnisse werden bei den Herstellern sehr aufmerksam verfolgt und führen immer wieder zu Rückrufaktionen, nachdem Mängel aufgedeckt wurden. Außerdem organisiert ExtraEnergy Messen und Kongresse, ist Mitglied in internationalen Standardisierungsgremien und baut ein Schulungszentrum für Händler auf. Ferner betreibt der Verein eine intensive Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und verbreitet im Frühjahr und Herbst die Ergebnisse der Testreihen auf seiner Internetplattform (Link rechts im Kasten).

Zulassungsvorschriften

Ob es sich um ein E-Bike oder ein Pedelec handelt, ist bei manchen Herstellern nur eine Frage der Software. So lassen sich baugleiche Fahrzeuge entweder als E-Bike oder als Pedelec programmieren. Handelt es sich um ein Pedelec, so muss per Software eine Sperre eingebaut sein, die verhindert, dass der Motor das Fahrzeug auf eine höhere Geschwindigkeit als 25 Stundenkilometer beschleunigt. Das heißt allerdings nicht, dass man bergab bremsen muss. Es bedeutet nur, dass der Motor ab dieser Geschwindigkeitsgrenze keine Leistung mehr abgeben darf, obwohl es technisch möglich wäre. Handelt es sich um ein E-Bike, das mit einem Gashebel oder über einen Lenkergriff beschleunigt wird, dann gilt das Fahrzeug als zulassungspflichtiges Leichtmofa und darf die Höchstgeschwindigkeit von 20 Stundenkilometern nicht überschreiten. Darüber hinaus ist eine Mofabescheinigung oder ein Führerschein erforderlich. Eine Helmpflicht besteht allerdings nicht. Die gilt erst bei Fahrzeugen, die eine Höchstgeschwindigkeit von Stundenkilometer überschreiten.

Es gibt allerdings auch Pedelecs, die schneller als 25 Stundenkilometer fahren können, weil sie nicht wie üblich mit 250 Watt, sondern mit beispielsweise 500 Watt Motoren ausgestattet sind. Überschreitet das Pedelec bauartbedingt die Höchstgeschwindigkeit von 25 Stundenkilometern, gilt es als "Kleinkraftrad“ und darf nur mit einem Versicherungskennzeichen gefahren werden. Dann besteht auch Helmpflicht. Es ist allerdings zu empfehlen, ein solches schnelles Pedelec nur mit entsprechender Schutzkleidung zu fahren, denn diese Fahrzeuge können spielend Geschwindigkeiten von 30, 40 ja bis zu 80 km/h erreichen. Es sollte in jedem Fall jedoch ganz genau geprüft werden, ob es für ein solches Fahrzeug auch eine entsprechende vom TÜV bescheinigte Fahrzeugzulassung gibt. Hier ist derzeit noch so manches in einer juristischen Grauzone angesiedelt. Verkehrsexperten warnen allerdings schon jetzt vor den Bikern, die mit ungewöhnlich hohen Geschwindigkeiten auf Straßen und Radwegen unterwegs sind.

Pedelecs im Test

Testpersonen mit ihren Pedelecs  © NDR
große Bildversion anzeigen

Der von ExtraEnergy durchgeführte Fahrradtest hat einen hohen Standard. Der Test gilt weltweit als einmalig, weil mit aufwendiger Messtechnik nicht nur im Labor, sondern auch auf einer 18 Kilometer langen Teststrecke gemessen wird. Beim aktuellen Test haben zehn ehrenamtliche Fahrer insgesamt 28 Fahrzeuge im hügeligen Umland von Tanna getestet, wobei jeder Hersteller zwei baugleiche Räder lieferte. Jeder Testfahrer war dabei mit jedem Rad einmal auf der Teststrecke. Darüber hinaus wurden die Räder noch in etwa 100 zusätzlichen Testfahrten eingesetzt, sodass mit den 56 Testrädern eine Strecke von insgesamt knapp 13.000 Kilometern zurückgelegt wurde. Ziel war es, statistische Aussagen unabhängig von der Kondition oder den individuellen Besonderheiten des Fahrers treffen zu können. Zum Vergleich: Spitzensportler bringen beim Antritt zwischen 120 und 150 Kilogramm auf die Pedale. Etwa zehn Sekunden lang kommen sie so auf Spitzenwerte von bis zu 1.500 Watt. Über eine längere Strecke von 40 Minuten schaffen Spitzensportler es 400 bis 500 Watt Leistung zu halten. Normal trainierte Menschen schaffen hingegen höchstens zwischen 100 und 150 Watt.

Wer sich allerdings für ein Pedelec interessiert, dem werden Watt-Angaben des Motors nicht weiterhelfen. Hier zählt vor allem: Wie groß ist der Unterstützungsfaktor, den das Rad bei Steigungen zu bieten hat. Ziel der Testfahrten war es, sowohl die Reichweite der Akkus wie auch den Unterstützungsfaktor zu ermitteln. Deshalb gingen die Fahrer zunächst auf einem Fahrrad ohne Elektroantrieb auf die 18 Kilometer lange Teststrecke. Dabei wurde über Sensoren die Pedalkraft, die Trittfrequenz und die Geschwindigkeit gemessen. Anschließend wurde die Strecke mit einem baugleichen Pedelec zurückgelegt. Auf diese Weise lässt sich vergleichen, wie hoch der Unterstützungsfaktor bei dem jeweiligen Testfahrzeug ausfällt. Wie unterscheiden sich die einzelnen Unterstützungsfaktoren.

- Unterstützungsfaktor 1: Die Leistung des Fahrers wird verdoppelt.

- Unterstützungsfaktor 0: Der Antrieb des Pedelecs kompensiert lediglich das Zusatzgewicht

- Unterstützungsfaktor negativ: Ohne Motorantrieb wäre das Fahren leichter.

Um sich nicht gegenseitig zu beeinflussen, mussten die Fahrer die Teststrecke alleine absolvieren. Jedes Fahrzeug war mit folgender Messtechnik ausgestattet:

- Ein Drehmomentsensor, der die Kraft ermittelt, die der Fahrer auf die Pedale ausübt.

- Ein Trittfrequenzsensor, der die Häufigkeit protokolliert, mit der die Pedale um die Achse bewegt werden.

- Ein Energieverbrauchssensor, mit dem gemessen wird, wie hoch auf einem bestimmten Streckenabschnitt der Energiebedarf ist, der aus der Batterie gezogen wird.

Darüber hinaus sind die Testfahrer mit einem GPS-Empfänger ausgestattet, sodass die gesamte Strecke in kleine Abschnitte aufgeteilt werden kann. So wird ermittelt, wie groß der Energieaufwand beziehungsweise der Unterstützungsfaktor auf einem bestimmten Streckenabschnitt ist. Alle Messdaten werden während der Testfahrt kontinuierlich auf einem USB-Stick gesammelt und anschließend ausgewertet.

Nabenmotor oder Tretlagermotor

Nabenmotor eines Pedelecs  © NDR
große Bildversion anzeigen

Pedelecs gibt es mit einem Nabenmotor im Vorder- beziehungsweise Hinterrad oder in der Mitte als Tretlagermotor. Auch wenn die meisten Hersteller inzwischen den Hinterrad- oder den Tretlagerantrieb bevorzugen, gibt es keine eindeutige Festlegung, welcher Antrieb vorteilhafter ist. Vorderradantrieb ist vor allem dann zu empfehlen, wenn schwere Lasten auf der Vorderachse transportiert werden sollen. Allerdings kann es auf nasser und glatter Fahrbahn zum Durchdrehen des Rades und einer insgesamt ungünstigen Fahrdynamik kommen.

Der große Vorteil der Tretlagermotoren liegt darin, dass ihre Kraft auf die Kette wirkt und so beim Schalten mitgeschaltet wird. Das verbessert den Wirkungsgrad des Motors vor allem bei Steigungen. Im Vergleich zu den Nabenmotoren für Vorder- oder Hinterrad lassen sich Tretlagermotoren sehr kompakt bauen. Verschleiß- und störanfällige Verkabelungen und Steckerverbindungen entfallen, da beim Tretlagermotor nur eine einzige Kabelverbindung zur Bedieneinheit am Lenker benötigt wird. Die Antriebsübertragung erfolgt beim Tretlagermotor über die Kette. Damit lässt sich aber beim Tretlagermotor eine technische Raffinesse nicht umsetzen, die einige Nabenmotoren zu bieten haben. Wer mit einem Fahrzeug mit Nabenmotor unterwegs ist, kann bei abschüssiger Fahrt die Bewegungsenergie nutzen, um wie bei einer Motorbremse eine Art Dynamo zu aktivieren. Bei dieser sogenannten "Rekuperation“ wird bei der Fahrt auf abschüssiger Strecke die Batterie mit frischem Strom versorgt. Bei einem Tretlagermotor ist dies aufgrund des Freilaufs nicht möglich. Wer aus Gewohnheit einen Rücktritt bevorzugt, benötigt einen Vorderradantrieb, weil sich nur damit der Rücktritt technisch lösen lässt. Die Auswahl des Motors ist davon abhängig, wofür das Fahrzeug überwiegend genutzt werden soll. Will man das Pedelec für tägliche Stadtfahrten ins Büro nutzen oder sind auch längere Tourenstrecken geplant? Soll es vor allem in einem eher hügeligen Gelände oder eher auf ebener Strecke gefahren werden?

Batterie und Ladegerät

In den vergangenen zehn Jahren hat es vor allem bei den Batterien deutliche Fortschritte gegeben. Gehörten vor einigen Jahren noch rund elf Kilogramm schwere Blei-Gel-Akkus zum Standard, so wiegen die heutigen Lithium-Ionen-Akkus bei vergleichbarer Leistung nur noch etwas mehr als zwei Kilogramm. Die Gewichtsreduzierung macht sich in der größeren Reichweite bemerkbar. Hier legten die Tester von ExtraEnergy besonders strenge Maßstäbe an, da sie die Fahrzeuge in hügeligem Gelände getestet haben. Die meisten Fahrzeuge haben heute eine Reichweite von 30 bis 45 Kilometern. Manche erzielen gar Reichweiten von 80 Kilometern.

Entscheidende Verbesserungen gibt es auch bei der Lebensdauer der Akkus. Betrug sie bei den Blei-Gel-Akkus gerade mal ein bis anderthalb Jahre, so halten heutige Lithium-Ionen-Akkus drei bis fünf Jahre. Die neuen Akkus haben außerdem den Vorteil, dass sie innerhalb von drei bis vier Stunden komplett aufgeladen werden können und sich mit ihnen hohe Wirkungsgrade erzielen lassen - was vor allem in bergigem Gelände von Vorteil ist.

Beim Kauf eines Pedelecs sollte unbedingt nach der Garantie für die Batterie gefragt werden. Ferner empfiehlt es sich, die Kosten für einen Ersatzakku mit in die Kaufentscheidung einzubeziehen. Nicht selten muss man bei den heutigen Lithium-Ionen-Akkus mit zusätzlichen Kosten in Höhe von 600 bis 850 Euro rechnen.

Genauso wichtig ist das Ladegerät. Hier haben sich in den allermeisten Fällen Ladegeräte mit XLR-Steckern durchgesetzt, die normalerweise bei Mikrophonen im professionellen Audio- und Videobereich verwendet werden. Nicht zulässig sind die sogenannten Kaltgerätestecker, wie wir sie als Zubehör bei Druckern und Monitoren kennen. Noch immer werden Elektrofahrräder mit solchen Steckern verkauft. Aber auch bei den XLR-Steckern sollte man besonders aufmerksam sein und keinesfalls ohne vorherige technische Prüfung die Ladegeräte anderer Hersteller verwenden. Nach Erkenntnissen von ExtraEnergy kommt es immer wieder vor, dass die XLR-Stecker eine unterschiedliche Polbelegung haben und mit 12, 24, 36 oder gar 48 Volt ausgestattet sind. Derzeit ist ein international besetztes Gremium bemüht, Standards für einen weltweit einheitlichen Stecker zu definieren, der für mehr Sicherheit sorgen soll. So wie es der USB-Anschluss möglich macht, Geräte unterschiedlicher Computerhersteller miteinander zu vernetzen, so soll dies eines Tages auch bei den Ladegeräten der Elektrofahrzeuge möglich sein.

Autorin/Autor: Ulrich Neumann

BILDER AUS CHINA: http://www-2.net/y23.stock.pictures/20090720-china/
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Sunday, August 16, 2009

architecture art deco jugendstil shanghai new zealand

Art deco buildings article -- nice reference

short and good choice of words

http://www.lepoix.de/html/reference/art_deco_streamline_architecture/art_deco_streamline_architecture_index.html

Streamline Architecture


As "Art Deco" evolved in the 1930s modern transportation and industrial design began to have an even greater impact upon new construction. The "streamlined" character of automobiles, airplanes, trains, buses, liners and even home appliances inspired powerful horizontal design compositions, accentuated by striking vertical features and punctuated by icons of the technological era.

The origins of streamline architecture are found in Europe. In the early 1910s, a young italian architect who was part of the futurist movement, Sant´Elia, did many drawings of large urban buildings (station, office buildings) which were part of overall concept for a futuristic city. The lines allthough art deco-ish (many vertical lines) were also speed oriented and stretched.

Allthough he died in the 1st WW and never had a chance to see his project turned to life, he influenced some of the european architects of the time. The most famous among them was Erich Mendelsohn, a german born architect who in the early 20s made many sketches of extremely streamlined buildings.

Its most famous legacy however is the so called Einstein Tower in Postdam Germany (drawing above), which mixed element of organic and streamline architecture. Due to the complexity of the building, no other projects like this were ever done: intended to be built out of concrete, it was finally built with bricks and overlapped with a plaster finish. Mendelsohn later received many projects, most famous are the Shocken Department stores in Berlin and Stuttgart (now destroyed) which were a marvel of glass and steel architecture, at that time a real novelty.

Let s not forget that at the same time, a strong parallel school movement was taking place, the Bauhaus which would finally become a standard in architecture (the so called international style). But apart from the Dessau bauhaus school (built 8 years later), very few buildings in Germany were as streamlinish avant-garde as the ones made by Mendelsohn.

By the end of the 20s, the streamline architecture reached its peak Many streamline movie theaters were built and they became the model for what was to be found later in the UK and USA.

Mendelsohn went to the US in 1925-26 and met Norman Bel Geddes, the soon to be most influential figure for streamline utopia in the US.

By 1933, time of the rise of Hilter, the streamline style had completely disappeared (the same fate occured to bauhaus style housing).

Meanwhile the streamline style had reached other countries in Europe. By 1930 many buildings were done in this style in France and the UK and would last until the end of the war. The style was often called paquebot (or liner) architecture as rails on balcony and roof toops as well as portholes were a common trait.

French would often use from 1930s on a mix of vertical art deco and streamline styled elements and it was mostly found in schools, airport and condominium buildings.

In the UK, private housing and movie theater done in the streamline style became extremely popular around 1935 and the same can be said of Belgium were all sea side cities had many buildings done in the style. From the UK, the style reached the shores of Australia, New Zealand (Napier was completely rebuilt after an earthquake in 1932) and South Africa. There is a great amount of streamlined buildings in Shanghai, mostly in the french concession, built in the late 30s and 40s. The most spectacular is certainly the old airport which looks from the sky like a giant airplane.

Another interesting exception is Italy which under Mussolini was completely obsessed with speed (originating in the futurist movement of the early 1910s) yet very few buildings in the streamline style were built in Italy itself. Instead they turned their attention to Eritrea (Africa), which had become an italian colony in the 20s, and built from scratch a complete city in streamline / art deco style. his city is Asmara. Like Shanghai, the most famous building done in the style is the Fiat gas station which also looks like an airplane.

By 1932, the streamline stye in architecture made its first appearance in the US and sent a very strong signal during the 1933 Chicago World Fair. It would become a standard for the 15 years to come.

Streamline architecture was, as soon as it reached the american shores in clinch with the architects of the international style, an architecture mostly based on the bauhaus principles.

Philipp Johnson, Curator of the NY MOMA was the most ardent opponent of the streamline movement in general and considered such architecture as fake and ornamented.

The prevalence of the international style in architecture history also explains why until now the streamline architecture has never been considered as a real architecture worth to be studied and is mostly unknown by the general public.

In America, the streamline architecture would remain an element reserved mostly to public buildings. Many americans could simply not afford the costs linked to such architectures (corner windows were extremely expensive) and the idea of a private streamline house as such was not so popular even if the magazines of the time would like one to think so.


As a matter of facts, it is said that americans embraced the streamline style (which pervaded almost everything) mostly in the kitchen and bathroom yet longed for a neo colonial setting in the rest of their homes

The streamline design style would still pervade in the US, even after the 2 WW, but would became much more subtle: since it s early influence was based on new technology like cars and airplanes, the 1950s jet age was still an environment in which rounded shapes were easily accepted.

How to recognise Streamline Modern(e):


Smooth, rounded cornes often replaced sharp ones on Moderne buildins, especially on corner lots. "Eyebrows" swept around them as did other details. Street corners became inviting architectural focal points, whether the special treatment employed was based upon curves or angles.

Like earlier Art Deco buildings, The Moderne style incorporated smooth and articulated stucco, architectural glass block, keystone and a variety of metals used in detailing. Predominating surfaces became smooth, planer and aerodynamic in character.

Continuous "eyebrows", racing stripe banding, radio tower-like spires, portholes, and deck railings like those found on grand ocean liners, were among theunique features to set this architecture apart from anything before it. The creative incorporation of nautical themes showed this form of Art Deco to be true to its origins of Streamline Moderne Architecture.
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Friday, August 14, 2009

Eye Candy ... good looking humans

egg sperm chromosomes marriage agent partner sex .... sex .. sex ...

But in our modern world, being sexy does NOT mean you are successful in the HAPPY LIFE category. Why is that? Simple! We are deluded by a manufactured dream-world. Our desires are controlled. Our consent is manufactured, the business-banking doctrinal system wants us to fear and consume. Am I beautiful enough?

Human sexuality : biological factors, such as organic and neurological response, heredity, hormones, and sexual dysfunction; basic functions of reproduction and the physical means to carry out sexual intercourse. The biological perspective helps to analyze the factors, and ultimately aids in understanding them and using them to deal with sexual problems.

Scarlett Johansson wins sexiest body award

Hollywood beauty Scarlett Johansson has been hailed as having the sexiest body in the world.

The Lost In Translation star, who was once described as "criminally sexy" by director Woody Allen, came top in a poll for Glamour magazine, ahead of actress Jessica Alba and supermodel Gisele Bundchen.

The magazine says, "With curves to rival Marilyn Monroe's, Scarlett embraces old-school Hollywood style."

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/lifestyle/2007-04/11/xin_400404111419088251454.jpg

1.Scarlett Johansson

Scarlett Johansson (born November 22, 1984) is an US American actress and singer.

Johansson was born in New York City. Her father, Karsten Johansson, is a Danish-born architect, and her paternal grandfather, Ejner Johansson, was a screenwriter and director. Her mother, Melanie Sloan, a producer, comes from an Ashkenazi Jewish family from the Bronx.

Johansson's ex-boyfriend and member of the band Steel Train, Jack Antonoff

She has been linked to many famous men, including Benicio del Toro, Jared Leto, Justin Timberlake, and her Black Dahlia co-star Josh Hartnett, though Johansson denies she had a relationship with del Toro. Johansson and Hartnett dated for about two years until the end of 2006, with Hartnett citing their busy lives as the reason for the split.

She started dating Canadian actor Ryan Reynolds in 2007, and on May 5, 2008, it was reported that the two were engaged. On September 27, 2008, Johansson and Reynolds were married at a quiet ceremony on Vancouver Island in Tofino, British Columbia.
She gets tested for HIV twice a year.

2. Jessica Alba

Jessica Marie Alba (born April 28, 1981) is an US-American television and film actress. She began her television and movie appearances at age 13 in Camp Nowhere and The Secret World of Alex Mack (1994). Alba rose to prominence as the lead actress in the television series Dark Angel (2000–2002).[2][3] Alba later appeared in various films including Honey (2003), Sin City (2005), Fantastic Four (2005), Into the Blue (2005), Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer and Good Luck Chuck both in 2007

Alba is considered a sex symbol and often generates media attention for her looks. She appears frequently on the "Hot 100" section of Maxim and was voted number one on AskMen.com's list of "99 Most Desirable Women" in 2006, as well as "Sexiest Woman in the World" by FHM in 2007

While filming Dark Angel in January 2000, Alba began a three year relationship with her co-star Michael Weatherly, which caused controversy due to their 12 year age gap. Weatherly proposed to Alba on her twentieth birthday, which she accepted. In August 2003, Alba and Weatherly announced that they'd ended their relationship. In July 2007, Alba spoke out about the break up, saying "I don't know [why I got engaged]. I was a virgin. He was 12 years older than me. I thought he knew better. My parents weren't happy. They're really religious. They believe God wouldn't allow the Bible to be written if it wasn't what they are supposed to believe. I'm completely different." Alba had at one time said she envisioned a much older man as her ideal partner, making references to Morgan Freeman, Sean Connery, Robert Redford, and Michael Caine. She said, "I have this thing for older men. They've been around and know so much."

Alba met Cash Warren, son of actor Michael Warren, while making Fantastic Four in 2004. On December 27, 2007, Alba and Warren announced that they were engaged. Alba married Warren in Los Angeles on Monday, May 19, 2008. On June 7, 2008, Alba gave birth to a baby girl, Honor Marie Warren, at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California. The first pictures of Honor Marie appeared in OK! magazine, which paid a reported $1.5 million for them. Alba has said that she would like to have more children.



http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/lifestyle/2007-04/11/xin_580404111006956839823.jpg

3. Gisele Bundchen

Gisele Caroline Bündchen (born July 20, 1980) is a Brazilian model and occasional film actress. According to Forbes, she is the highest-paid model in the world and also the sixteenth richest woman in the entertainment world, with an estimated $150 million fortune.

Since her debut, Bündchen has been the face of a variety of advertising campaigns including several seasons of Christian Dior, Balenciaga, Mervyn's, Dolce & Gabbana, Missoni, Versace, Givenchy, Bvlgari, Lanvin, Guerlain, Valentino, Ralph Lauren, Earl Jean, Zara, Chloé, Michael Kors, Louis Vuitton and Victoria's Secret. She has appeared in advertisements for Nivea lotion and is the face of several Brazilian brands including Vivo, Multiplan (Shopping Malls), Colcci, Credicard (Citibank) and Volkswagen do Brasil. After C&A Brazil hired Bündchen as a spokesmodel and began airing television commercials, sales increased by 30%.

On Thursday, February 26, 2009, Bündchen married New England Patriots quarterback Tom Brady in a small Catholic ceremony in Los Angeles. On April 5, 2009, the couple remarried in Costa Rica with Brady's son, John Edward Thomas Moynahan, present. For the ceremony, Gisele wore a dress and veil designed by famed fashion designer John Galliano. Bundchen's three dogs were also present at the ceremony. Bündchen and Brady had been dating since late 2006. Before marrying him, she dated actor Leonardo DiCaprio and professional surfer Kelly Slater. On Friday, June 19 2009, People magazine reported that Gisele was pregnant with her first child with husband Tom Brady. The baby is due around January or February 2010.

On April 11, 2008, a black-and-white photo of Bündchen, shot by Irving Penn, was auctioned for US$193,000 (£96,000). The picture was one of dozens from the collection of Gert Elfering that were sold at Christie's International in New York. In all, the auction tallied US$4.27 million and included pictures of Brigitte Bardot, Kate Moss, Naomi Campbell, Christy Turlington and Carla Bruni. Bündchen's picture reached the highest price in comparison with the others. Bardot was the second with US$181,000 (£90,000).

Bündchen would wear a two piece Cia Maritima bikini bearing the iconic image of Latin American Revolutionary Che Guevara at a Sao Paulo fashion show during 2007. Che's daughter, Aleida Guevara March, finding it distasteful would speak out against her late father's image being used on a swim suit saying, "I have heard of a Brazilian fashion designer making underwear with my father's face on it. We can't accept that from him or anyone else. We do not want any money, we just want him to stop this." Alberto Korda's Guerrillero Heroico image was never copyrighted which has lead it to be used in hundreds of different ways, but this marked the only time that a Guevara family member spoke out against a Che product.


http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/lifestyle/2007-04/11/xin_5904041110063953094124.jpg

4. Jennifer Aniston

Jennifer Joanna Aniston (born February 11, 1969) is an US-American actress. She became famous in the 1990s for her role as Rachel Green in the popular US sitcom Friends

In addition to her career as a TV actress, Aniston has enjoyed a successful film career. Her biggest box office success to date was her appearance in 2003's Bruce Almighty, in which she played the girlfriend of title character Jim Carrey

Aniston dated her Ferris Bueller costar Charlie Schlatter in 1990. She began a relationship with Daniel MacDonald in 1991. They broke up in 1994 shortly before she was cast in Friends. She briefly dated musician Adam Duritz in 1995. From 1995 to 1998, she was romantically involved with actor Tate Donovan and the couple were reportedly engaged.

In 1998, she began dating actor Brad Pitt and married him on July 29, 2000, in a lavish Malibu wedding. For a few years, their marriage was considered the rare Hollywood success. However, the couple announced their separation on January 6, 2005. Pitt became involved with actress Angelina Jolie, though Pitt has denied cheating on Aniston with her.
Following her divorce, Aniston began a relationship with actor Vince Vaughn, with whom she costarred in The Break Up.
Relationship troubles were reported in September 2006, followed by a confirmed split in December of that year
She briefly dated male model Paul Sculfor for a few months in 2007. In April 2008, she began dating singer John Mayer. The couple had broken up after a seven-month courtship in August, but resumed the relationship in October, before splitting again in March 2009. Aniston has had two septoplasties to correct her deviated septum—one which was incorrectly done in 1994 and the second in January 2007. Septoplasty is a surgical operation that helps alleviate a common condition that can lead to breathing difficulty and trouble sleeping.

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/lifestyle/2007-04/11/xin_5904041110068491693825.jpg

5. Angelina Jolie

Angelina Jolie (born Angelina Jolie Voight on June 4, 1975) is an US-American actress.

On March 28, 1996, Jolie married British actor Jonny Lee Miller, her co-star in the film Hackers (1995). She attended her wedding in black rubber pants and a white shirt, upon which she had written the groom's name in her blood. Jolie and Miller separated the following year and subsequently divorced on February 3, 1999. They remained on good terms and Jolie later explained, "It comes down to timing. I think he's the greatest husband a girl could ask for. I'll always love him, we were simply too young."

Jolie has said in interviews that she is bisexual and has long acknowledged that she had a sexual relationship with her Foxfire (1996) co-star Jenny Shimizu, "I would probably have married Jenny if I hadn't married my husband. I fell in love with her the first second I saw her."

In early 2005, Jolie was involved in a well-publicized Hollywood scandal when she was accused of being the reason for the divorce of actors Brad Pitt and Jennifer Aniston. The allegation was that she and Pitt had started an affair during filming of Mr. & Mrs. Smith (2005). She denied this on several occasions, but admitted that they "fell in love" on the set.

During the summer Jolie and Pitt were seen together with increasing frequency and most of the entertainment media considered them a couple, dubbing them "Brangelina". On January 11, 2006, Jolie confirmed to People that she was pregnant with Pitt's child and thereby confirmed their relationship for the first time in public.

On January 19, 2006, a judge in California approved Pitt's request to legally adopt Jolie's two children. Their surnames were formally changed to "Jolie-Pitt". Jolie gave birth to a daughter, Shiloh Nouvel, in Swakopmund, Namibia, by a scheduled caesarean section, on May 27, 2006. Pitt confirmed that their newly-born daughter would have a Namibian passport, and Jolie decided to sell the first pictures of Shiloh through the distributor Getty Images herself, rather than allowing paparazzi to make these valuable photographs. People paid more than $4.1 million for the North American rights, while British magazine Hello! obtained the international rights for roughly $3.5 million. All profits were donated to an undisclosed charity by Jolie and Pitt


http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/lifestyle/2007-04/11/xin_000404111007303762226.jpg

6. Mischa Barton

Mischa Anne Marsden Barton, (born 24 January 1986) is a British-American film, television, and stage actress, perhaps best known for her role as Marissa Cooper in the American television series The O.C.

When asked in interviews if she feels English or American, she states she feels English.
Barton moved to New York City at the age of five and became a naturalised citizen of the United States in Los Angeles on 3 February 2006. Barton graduated from the Professional Children's School in Manhattan in 2004,
Barton has been in many television commercials and print advertising campaigns. Barton has modeled for companies Calvin Klein, bebe stores, Aéropostale, Monsoon Accessorize, Dooney & Bourke, JC (Jeans and Clothes), European clothing line Morgan de Toi, Jaspal, and Neutrogena skincare products. She became the spokesperson for Keds Sneakers, substantially increasing their sales.
Barton's previous boyfriends have included Cisco Adler, Taylor Locke, Jamie Dornan, Brett Simon, and Brandon Davis. In December 2008, there were reports that she was dating The Kooks frontman Luke Pritchard.The reports were confirmed during the relationship by Pritchard; Barton only confirmed the relationship after the pair split in March 2009, writing on her blog: "I think Luke is a great guy, but the type better suited as a friend.
Barton was admitted to Los Angeles psychiatric hospital Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre on 17th July 2009 following a reported mental breakdown.
Barton was arrested on suspicion of driving under the influence, possession of marijuana, and driving without a valid license on December 27, 2007
She was detained and released later the same morning from the West Hollywood Sheriff Station on US$10,000 bail.

On January 11, 2008, Barton called into Ryan Seacrest's radio show On Air with Ryan Seacrest (KIIS FM) and took full responsibility for her actions:

"I was pulled over... just that. Obviously, I’m 100 percent responsible for my actions in this case and I’m really disappointed in myself... I don’t know what to say about it, except that I’m not perfect and I just don’t ever intend to do something this stupid again.

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7. Rachel Bilson

Rachel Sarah Bilson (born August 25, 1981) is an American actress. After growing up in a California show business family, she made her television debut in 2003 and subsequently became well-known for playing Summer Roberts on the prime time drama series The O.C. Bilson made her film debut in the 2006 film The Last Kiss and starred in the 2008 action/sci-fi film Jumper.

Bilson began dating her The O.C. co-star Adam Brody in 2003. In late 2006, Bilson and Brody ended their relationship. In March 2007, she started dating Canadian actor Hayden Christensen, after meeting on the set of Jumper. The couple got engaged in December 2008, over the holidays. Bilson has been recognized by several media sources as being a "fashion junkie". Of her line, she said in an interview with Teen Vogue "I wanted to keep it as separate as possible from Rachel Bilson the actress. I'm hoping people will appreciate it for the clothes, not the person behind them." Much of her fashion collection was lost when her home was burglarized in May 2009. Bilson has turned down requests to appear seminude in men's magazines, specifying that she feels that her body "is sacred" and "not there for the whole world to see. However, she has been featured in a pictorial in the men's magazines Stuff and GQ.

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8. Beyonce Knowles

Beyoncé Giselle Knowles (born September 4, 1981), best known mononymously as Beyoncé

an US-American R&B singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, choregrapher, video director, actress and model. Born and raised in Houston, Texas,

Knowles has become known as a sex symbol.

According to her, "I like to dress sexy and I carry myself like a lady," but she has said that the way she dresses on stage is "absolutely for the stage". She flashes here ass and tits?

Since 2002, Knowles has been in a relationship with rapper Jay-Z, with whom she has collaborated several times. On April 4, 2008, Knowles and Jay-Z were married in New York City. It became a matter of public record on April 22, 2008.

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9. Jennifer Lopez

Jennifer Lynn Lopez (born July 24, 1969[1]), often nicknamed J.Lo, is an American actress, singer, record producer, dancer, fashion designer and television producer. She is the richest person of Latin American descent in Hollywood according to Forbes

She has had high-profile relationships with Ojani Noa, Cris Judd, Sean Combs, Ben Affleck, and Marc Anthony. Her first children, fraternal twins named Max and Emme, were born on February 22, 2008

It was reported that Lopez and Anthony were taking professional business meetings at the Church of Scientology Celebrity Centre in Hollywood, California, in late 2006. It was also rumored that Lopez and Anthony became Scientologists during that period with the help of Angelo Pagan, the husband of "King of Queens" actress and Scientologist Leah Remini.[59] Just prior to those reports, Lopez said to NBC, "I'm not a Scientologist, I was raised Catholic. But it's funny the way people come at it. To me it's so strange. These are some of the best people I've ever met in my life.

Lopez gave birth on February 22, 2008 to fraternal twins, a girl and a boy, Emme Maribel Muñiz, and Maximilian "Max" David Muñiz. The twins were introduced in the March 11, 2008 issue of People magazine for which the magazine paid $6 million.


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10. Kelly Brook

Kelly Brook (born Kelly Ann Parsons on 23 November 1979) is an English model, actress, occasional swimwear designer and television presenter.

Dated English actor Jason Statham for seven years before splitting in 2004. The couple lived together in Los Angeles and Herne Hill, south London.

Brook met American actor Billy Zane while filming thriller Survival Island in Greece in 2004. Brook and Zane were engaged to be married in the summer of 2008 and acquired a house in Kent, but Brook postponed the wedding upon the death of her father in November 2007. The couple split in April 2008 and briefly got back together before ending their relationship for good in August 2008.[13]

Brook has been dating Wasps rugby player Danny Cipriani since September 2008

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An orgasm (from Greek orgasmos, from organ to mature, swell, also sexual climax) is the peak of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, characterized by an intense sensation of pleasure. Experienced by both males and females, orgasm is controlled by the involuntary, or autonomic, limbic system, and is accompanied by quick cycles of muscle contraction in the lower pelvic muscles, which surround the primary sexual organs and the anus. Orgasms are often associated with other involuntary actions, including muscular spasms in multiple areas of the body, a general euphoric sensation and, frequently, body movements and vocalizations are expressed.

Orgasm is a autonomic physiologic response to sexual stimulation by self or between partners. Brain activity scans indicate the importance of the limbic system in the orgasmic response. In humans, orgasm is typically correlated with the stimulation of the glans penis in males and with the stimulation of the clitoris in females. Stimulation can be by self (masturbation) or by partner (mutual masturbation) or by other sexual activities. Partners simultaneously stimulating both the male's glans penis and female's clitoris by mutual or simultaneous masturbation, rhythmic inter-genital contact friction or actual penetrative intercourse can lead to orgasm in one or both partners, sometimes simultaneously, known as simultaneous orgasm. Mixed gender or same gender partners can both stimulate and learn to control each other's orgasms.

The moments after orgasm are often a relaxing experience, which is attributed to the release of neuro hormones oxytocin and prolactin. Male and female brains demonstrate similar changes during orgasm (by partner controlled orgasm), with brain activity scans showing a temporary reduction decrease in the metabolic activity of large parts of the cerebral cortex with normal or increased metabolic activity in the limbic areas of the brain.

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